Friday, November 6, 2009
The Château of Montmirail
The castle of Montmirail is unusual in that from the back it looks Gothic, whereas from the front it has a graceful Renaissance facade. They hardly seem as if they belong together. The photo of the back of the château was taken from the Green Room at Maison Conti. The castle is essentially in our backyard. The front, on the other hand, is not visible until you go through the gates and enter the grounds of the castle. It is still a private residence, but during the summer months, one can take a tour. The aesthetic of the Gothic era was purely practical. The idea was to create a fortified stronghold, to withstand the frequent attacks that any castle would expect in the course of things. For hundreds of years, wars were a kind of summer sport and armies got together to attack one another. During the winter months, everyone went back home. Richard the Lion Hearted razed the castle of Montmirail to the ground in about 1175. In those days armies brought the war right to the castle walls and once the castle was destroyed, the conquering army could take control. We found a crude cannon ball in our front yard while we were digging out for our terrace garden. At a certain moment, someone got the bright idea that it might be better NOT to destroy the castle, and rather to do the warring part in a local field, away from the city and château. In that way, the winner could control something worth owning, rather than having to reconstruct all the walls he'd been at such pains to pull down. A fundamental change in architecture accompanied this revelation. During the Renaissance, castles became much more about style and comfort than defense. Montmirail is a site which has been continuously inhabited since prehistoric times. It's a strategic location. One can look out for miles around to see who's approaching. In the 12th century, the castle was also politically well located, just between what was then English-held Normandy, and the Ile de France, the seat of the French government. The family who owned the castle at the time had ties through marriage to both the English and French crowns, so was a kind of neutral place for the kings to meet. St Louis and Henry II had a famous meeting here in 1169 to discuss the church and Thomas Beckett. The French king, who was very pious, was attempting to mediate between the king of England and his archbishop, who were not seeing eye to eye. Henry believed his power trumped that of the church, whereas Thomas Beckett insisted that the crown represented only temporal power, and the church eternal power, thus if there was any conflict between the two, the church wins. Louis tried to argue in favor of Thomas' point of view. Of course within the year, Beckett was assassinated in the cathedral of Canterbury by Henry's henchmen, so it seems the meeting was in vain. This wasn't the first time St. Louis was disappointed with Henry. The first time Henry came to visit Louis at his palace in Paris, he left with Louis' wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine. Louis wasn't so sorry to be rid of Eleanor, but she controlled much of western France, which became part of England when she divorced Louis to marry Henry. Another famous resident of the castle was the Princess Conti. She was the illegitimate child of Louis XIV and apparently his favorite. She was the daughter of his first mistress, Louise-Françoise, who bore him 3 children. The Princess, named Marie-Anne was beautiful, charming and spiritually minded. When she became of age, Louis legitimized her, leaving her free to marry among the nobility. She married the Prince of Conti, who owned the castle. It was Marie-Anne who added all the Renaissance touches. She also had the house we live in built for her finance minister, which is why we call it Maison Conti. At the time the Italian style was very much in fashion at her father's court, so both Marie-Anne's castle, and our house have a decided Italianate flavor.